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JACK MANKIN'S DISCUSSION BOARD ARCHIVES


1. BASEBALL& SOFTBALL HITTING

A. The Beginning
B. Comparison - Baseball and Softball Hitting
C. Players/coaches/authorities
D. Rotational Hitting Aids/drills/cues
E. Linear vs rotational
F. Video analysis


2. BAT SPEED GENERATION

A. Grip & Wrist
B. Launch Position
C. Weight-shift/momentum
D. Lower-body
E. Rotation/Separation
F. Axis of Rotation


3. ROTATIONAL HITTING MECHANICS

A. Initiation
B. Back-arm & Extension
C. Lead-arm & Casting
D. CHP (Circular-Hand-Path)
E. BHT (Bottom-Hand-Torque)
F. PLT & THT (Pre-Launch & Top-Hand-Torque)
G. Hitting the Outside Pitch
H. Contact/Bat Drag/Follow-through
I. Rotational vs Linear Swing Plane


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1. BASEBALL & SOFTBALL HITTING

A. The Beginning


Linear vs Rotational cues - Like fitting square pegs in round holes
  • (Video: Mechanics that generate bat speed)

    Purpose of allowing opposing views

    Do we actually teach what we see?
  • The start of my study (Video: CHP & Torque)

    Style vs. Absolutes in the swing
  • All swings will be governed by the same physics principles (the "Absolutes)

    The "Absolutes" to a good swing

    A dads dream come true
  • Hard work and efficient swing mechanics makes up for smaller size

    B. Comparison -baseball and softball hitting

    Pitching vs hitting mechanics (Video: Comparisons)

    Softball swing mechanics same as baseball swing (Video: Comparisons)

    Softball vs baseball hitting
  • Linear MLB hitters lose in softball game against rotational Slow Pitch hitters

    Differences in baseball and golf swing
  • Golf grip induce wrist- roll prior to contact

    Difference, golf & baseball (by Tom Querry)

    C. Players/coaches/authorities

    Mankin // Epstein differences
  • Body rotation still requires efficient transfer mechanics to generate bat speed

    Epstein torque (lower body) vs Mankin torque (upper body)
  • Torque that induces hip rotation - Torque applied at the handle

    Epstein - lead elbow

    Epstein's box - 90 degree elbows vs straighter arm

    Yeager vs Mankin's analysis - Conservation of Momentum

    Robert Adair's linear weight shift vs Mankin's rotation about a stationary axis

    Bat test data and why Robert Adair may have discounted handle torque
  • (Video: Physics and Acoustics of Baseball & Softball Bats)

    Steve Ferroli - Ted Williams & Flattened hands

    Daw - Rubber band analogy
  • (Video)

    Yeager's whip theory vs Mankin's rotational model

    Jim Lefebvre's book - Axis, front-hip vs spine
  • (Video: Giambi momentum & lead leg)

    Zig Ziegler's - Segment deceleration vs Load on rotation causes the deceleration

    Tom Querry - "Whipping action" vs BHT

    Hudgens' knob first vs Mankin's CHP

    Lau To Jack - Firm front leg discussion

    Paul Nyman vs Mankin (1) (Video: Misleading THT)

    Paul Nyman vs Mankin (2) (Video: Misleading THT simulation)

    Dusty Baker - Throwing the bat-head; Crack-of-the-whip theory

    D. Rotational Hitting Aids/drills/cues

    One-handed swings - Physics Lab test findings

    Motion study computer (1) - Findings verify video analysis

    Motion study computer (2)

    Staying inside the ball
  • What does staying inside the ball mean?

    Motion study computer (3) - Torque & pressure seniors

    The plane & the hose drill

    Bullwhip - how it works
  • There is no "Crack of a whip" with a ridged bat

    Power: 50% CHP & 50% Torque - Clarification

    Tom Waz - KE= 1/2(MVV) - Bringing JJA up to speed on Physics Calculations

    E. Linear vs rotational

    Linear vs Rotational - Clarification - What constitutes

    Linear = Low load to rotation
  • Zig Ziegler's segment deceleration vs load induced

    Linear vs Rotational - Pendulum effect vs Whip action
    Problem with Linear Mechanics
  • (Video: "Whip Effect" vs CHP & Torque)

    CHP & Torque vs Whip Model


    Linear vs Rotational mechanics
  • Yeager vs Mankin (Video: pendulum effect v. whip action)

    Linear vs Rotational - Loading (weight on legs) & inward turn

    Linear Mechanics and the minus 11 bats
  • Ted Williams & lighter bats effect on mechanics

    Linear & Fastpitch Softball hitting mechanics - College coaches teach rotational??

    "Swinging too late"
  • Bat speed from linear theories relies on nonexistent whipping action

    F. Video analysis

    Key points I look for in video analysis
  • Requires more than a single view point

    Hips or hands first?
  • Think of rotating hips or the bat-head rearward?
  • (Video: Sosa & Strawberry)

    THT & Bat drag

    Once shoulder rotation is depleted
  • Bat drag - Without THT, bat rotation does not stay in sync with body rotation

    Front view & Side view
  • Reasons for need of each view

    Video Camcorder
  • Recommended camcorders for video analysis with Batspeed's video analysis software - MotionView



    2. ENERGY DEVELOPMENT (LOWER-BODY MECHANICS)

    A. Grip & Wrist


    The Grip - Tight or loose?
  • (Video: Bat manufactures test results on the grip)

    Wrist droop
  • Does one "knuckle alignment" work

    Grip & elbow to the belly button

    The Grip - Bat in fingers or palm

    Bonds' Grip (both wrists flex) - straighter wrist & loose grip

    Separate the hands = More torque?

    Wrist snap? Role of the wrist in the swing

    Extension (wrist snap) vs BHT (push/pull of forearms)?

    Premature wrist roll - what causes it

    B. Launch position

    Hands to launch position
  • Hitters have many different styles in how they arrive at launch position
  • (Video: Bonds, Griffey, Sosa - Hands to launch)

    Is "elbow up" a flawed position?

    High back elbow - good position for rotational mechanics, but not for linear

    Inward-turn & PLT to THT mechanics
  • (Video: Bonds/A-Rod side by side)

    Lead-arm
  • (Video: lead arm of 4 good hitters)

    Hands go back with stride vs. Hiding the hands

    Shrugging lead-shoulder
  • Lead-shoulder rotates 150+ degrees while torso rotates 90

    "Loading defined"

    Inward-turn & pre launch torque
  • (Video: Bonds/A-rod side-by-side of PLT/THT/BHT)

    Inward shoulder turn hides the hands from pitcher
  • Griffey Jr. and David Wright illustrate the importance of the inward turn and hiding the hands(Video)

    Problems with hands creeping forward or into pitcher's view

    C. Weight-shift/momentum

    Pitching vs hitting mechanics - (Video: comparison clips)
  • Pitcher's forward momentum after foot plant not productive for swinging a bat

    Does weight shift = momentum

    Weight shift - Truism or fallacy?

    Weight swift & the "Conservation of Momentum
  • Hip rotation attained from linear weight shift is negligible

    Momentum & Gyro Action
  • Weight on back-foot & discussion of p=mv (Video: Bonds & gyro)

    Is linear motion transferred into angular momentum??
  • Theories on forces that drive hip rotation - (Video: Pathfinder demo; CHP vs. extension)

    What drives hip and shoulder rotation

    Hip rotation
  • Legs/pelvic momentum - Swivel chair analogy

    Welded wheel vs. depleting rotational momentum model

    D. Lower-body

    3 camps on hip rotation - (Video: Giambi - "Whip effect" disproved)

    Role of the hips - 1000 hp engine analogy

    Front foot open or closed

    Why Mark McGwire's lead-leg may remain bent at contact on out-side pitch

    Lead-leg extension
  • Hip rotation straightens led-leg & George Brett & THT

    Body drifting foreword
  • The cure

    Body tilt - Does not necessarily mean weight on back leg

    Batter fully rotates, but bat drags. Why?

    No THT creates bat drag

    Sync body rotation to bat rotation

    E. Rotation/separation

    Questioning shoulder rotation & CHP
  • Mechanics that generate bat speed - (Video: Griffey, Bonds & Rose analysis)

    Rotation & un-shrugging shoulders

    Lead-shoulder shrug discussion

    Hitting the inside and outside pitch mechanics
  • Lead-shoulder rotates 60+ degrees more than back-shoulder - (Video: Pete Rose)

    Hip rotation must stay connected
  • Hip rotation must contribute to shoulder rotation

    Kinetic chain; separation; free wheeling

    Muscles fire in unison
  • Is hips leading the hands due to sequential timing?

    Load causes separation -- No load = one-piece-swing (no separation)

    Role of hips - Does maximum separation equal disconnection?

    Separation/unison - Bowling ball analogy

    Pulling head out - Premature rotation & no separation

    Why not maximum separation - The 3 step swing (1-2-3)

    Hips lead shoulders, but then all rotate in unison
  • At initiation, all the muscles in the legs and torso are contracting in unison

    F. Axis of Rotation

    Axis tilt vs. shoulder rotation - (Video: Bonds' tilt and rotation)
  • add Howard clip

    4 axis of rotation

    Spinning and rotation
  • Revolving door vs. swinging gate (blocked lead-side) - (Video: Rose hip/shoulder comparison)

    Is there a difference between spinning & rotating?
  • (Video: Giambi's lower-body mechanics)

    Weight-shift - Stationary axis vs. back to center



    3. ROTATIONAL HITTING MECHANICS

    A. Initiation


    Focusing on the whole swing - Not just forward movements

    Envision the bat's rearward trajectory
  • Subconscious mind will set up a motor program

    Its CHP/THT/BHT - But you can't think your way through the swing

    Sync body rotation to bat-head rotation
  • Think: Rotate heel, rotate bat head

    Obtain your optimum contact position
  • The mind will provide a motor-program to accomplish the body trajectories you envision

    Don't "explode" - Think smooth ever accelerating power

    B. Back-arm & Extension

    "L" position at contact - Few average hitters attain correct position

    Elbow to the belly button - not remaining in the "slot"

    "L" in back-leg and arm
  • What drives back-arm -- (would you rather be hit with boxers hook or jab)
  • (Video: Back arm of 4 good hitters)

    C. Lead-arm & Casting

    Lead-arm - Should boxed elbow extend hands to contact?
  • (Video: Lead arm of 4 good hitters & Pete Rose clip)

    Defining "Casting & Extending


    Role of the lead-arm
  • 4 prong tire wrench analogy - (Video: Rose, Bonds & Burrell)

    Is casting bad?
  • Linear theme: All straight movement is good, all circular is bad

    Does barring = casting?
  • If so, does not "casting" = circular hand path

    Barred arm & shrugging lead-shoulder
  • Role of the lead-arm

    "Keep hands inside the ball" = linear cue?
  • The 'cue' and the resulting hand-path

    What cause counterproductive casting
  • Extending "barred arm" without shoulder rotation

    D. CHP - (Circular-Hand-Path)

    Pulling off the ball
  • "Bat drag" = "Pulling off the ball" - (Video: Rose example)

    How to practice developing a CHP
  • PathFinder & Rubber hose drill

    One-handed drill for generating a CHP

    Hook in hand-path & Tilt-a-whirl analogy

    Why hide your hands?

    E. BHT - (Bottom-Hand-Torque)

    "L" in back-leg and arm
  • What drives back-arm -- (hit with boxers "hook" or "jab")
  • (Video: back arm of four good hitters)

    Lumberjack analogy - Energy expended at contact
  • What powers follow-through

    Rotational Hitting Mechanics that generate bat speed
  • Rearward rotation of lead-shoulder
  • (Video: Hitters Exhibiting Good & Poor BHT)

    BHT - Applying torque by pulling the bottom-hand back
  • (Video: Bonds & Burrell BHT mechanics)

    Tony Gwynn - Full Extension vs "L" position at contact

    Add BHT to CHP
  • Lead-shoulder rotation - torque & CHP - (Video: Griffey analysis)

    Lead-shoulder shrug
  • A form of "scap loading" the lead-shoulder

    Back-arm "L" position - Percentage of torque applied (BHT to THT)

    F. PLT & THT - (Pre-Launch Torque) & (Top-Hand-Torque)

    THT applied in 2 Phases
  • Hitters like Bonds and Sosa accelerate the bat-head rearward in two phases
  • (Videos: Demonstrating THT w/PathFinder & Sosa - PLT to THT)

    Rearward bat-head acceleration
  • Shawn v. Mankin analysis - (Videos: Sosa & overhead clips)

    Bat accelerating from PLT into THT
  • (Videos: PLT to THT mechanics; THT w/PathFinder; Sosa - PLT to THT; 2 Bonds clips)

    THT - same mechanics, different names

    THT-- Key to a great swing

    THT - Thumb of top-hand raking shoulder

    THT & BHT - Do great hitters knowingly apply?

    THT - Rotational hitting & Transfer mechanics
  • When I first saw THT being applied (George Brett)
  • Video:Bonds and Burrell example
  • (Video: Overhead of John Elliot)

    THT & PLT - Sheffield PLT to THT maintains good linkage to rotation

    THT - Keeps lead-arm across chest - "A ballistic motion"

    THT mechanics
  • Shoulder tilt & lowering of the elbow
  • (Add Video: Ryan Howard's mechanics)

    THT & Wrist binds

    Mechanics that can cause Wrist binds

    THT - Can you see THT being applied

    THT & slotting the elbow
  • (Video: Bonds pre-launch torque mechanics)

    PLT - Bat vertical or wrapped

    PLT - Bonds mechanics

    PLT - Loading or un-loading?

    PLT - Discussing advantages of applying PLT

    G. HITTING THE Inside AND Outside Pitch

    Inside/outside mechanics
  • (Video: Lead-shoulder rotates 60+ degrees more than back-shoulder)

    Mark Teixeira - inside/outside mechanics
  • (Video: Lead shoulder rotates 150 while back shoulder rotates 90)

    Hitting the outside pitch

    THT & plate coverage
  • (Video: Reaching the low outside pitch - John & Rose overhead)

    Pulling off the ball
  • Little power to the opposite field are all indicators of "bat-drag"
  • (Video: Rose and plate coverage)

    Big Mac's front knee
  • Why lead-leg remains bent during contact

    The outside pitch - linear vs rotational mechanics

    Outside pitch - BHT mechanics vs PFO

    Ron Gant & Matt Williams - Limitations of BHT on outside pitches

    H. Contact/Bat Drag/Follow-through

    "L" in back-leg and arm
  • What drives back-arm -- (hit with boxers "hook" or "jab")
  • Insert video - 4 good hitters' back arm

    Pulling off the ball not caused by shoulder rotation
  • (Video: Pete Rose)

    Best hit balls pulled foul
  • Linear mechanics = Bat drag - (Video: Sosa)

    Hitting mechanics & the Follow through

  • (Video: WCWS hitters contact position)

    Big Mac's top-hand release
  • Conditions that make releasing the top-hand necessary
  • (Video: Animation - McGwire vs Amateur Hitter)

    Lumberjack analogy - Energy expended at contact

    I. Linear vs Rotational Swing Plane

    Swing plane like a tilted flat disc

    Lead-arm plane & the swing plane

    A-Rod & The Swing Plane
  • Discussion of frontal and across the plate view - (Video: comparison clips)

    PLT & the swing plane
  • Wrist-binds & waves in the swing plane

    THT & the swing plane
  • Rearward force must be inline from lead-arm

    "Swing down vs swing up at the ball"
  • (Video: bat up slope to contact)

    Swing down - But behind not in front

    Looping swing - Collapsing back-side

    Causes of plane flaws - Discussion of initiation problems




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